||One that pleads in another's behalf; an
intercessor: one that defends or maintains a cause or proposal
Speech and Hearing Association
||The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
(ASHA) is the professional, scientific, and credentialing association
for audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and speech, language,
and hearing scientists. Their mission is to ensure that all people
with speech, language, and hearing disorders have access to quality
services to help them communicate more effectively.
||Partial or total loss of the ability to
articulate ideas or comprehend spoken or written language, resulting
from damage to the brain caused by injury or disease.
||Loss of the voice resulting from disease,
injury to the vocal cords, or various psychological causes.
|ABA is a method to change behavior. It
consists of delivery of systematic directions that elicit responses
from the student which are consistently reinforced. The theory is
that reinforced behavior will reoccur. ABA is a discipline that requires
consistency, behavior prompting and rewards for correct behavior or
approximations of correctness.
||Characterized by the inability to produce
individual speech sounds clearly and difficulty combining sounds correctly
||Asperger Syndrome, also known as Asperger's
Disorder or Autistic Psychopathy, is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder
(PDD) characterized by severe and sustained impairment in social interaction,
development of restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests,
and activities. These characteristics result in clinically significant
impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
In contrast to Autistic disorder (Autism), there are no clinically
significant delays in language or cognition, self help skills or in
adaptive behavior, other than social interaction.
||Formal (e.g., standardized tests) and informal
procedures used to identify a person's unique needs, strengths, weaknesses,
learning style, and nature and extent of intervention services needed.
Assessment may be interchangeable with "Evaluation," and
it is at this clinic.
When children play with each other, sharing the same
materials and activities in an unorganized way. At this level the
children may be involved in play related to the same theme (e.g.,
playing blocks, playing "police/firefighter") but not
have organized scenarios with a common goal in their play. Each
child purses his/her own unique ideas. Predominateds between 30-36
||ADD/ADHD in the DSM (Diagnostic Statistical
Manuel) IV refers to 1) Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined
Type, 2) Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder/Predominately Inattentive
Type, or 3) Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder/Predominately
Hyperactive-Impulsive Type. Overall, behaviors include hyperactivity,
impulsivity, and inattention, depending on the diagnosis. These behaviors
must occur to a degree, which is maladaptive and inconsistent with
developmental level, and occur in at least two settings over a period
of at least 6 months. These behaviors may interfere with speech/language
learning, academic performance and social activities (e.g., making
friends, sustaining friendships. The disorder is diagnosed before
the age of 7, or symptoms were present before this age. There must
also be the presence of related impairment in social, academic, or
occupational functioning. For examples of related behaviors and symptoms
of ADD/ADHD, please click on "Understanding" and then "Other
Impairments and Disorders" at the top of this screen. Scroll
down to ADD/ADHD.
||A professional who specializes in the identification,
testing, habilitation and rehabilitation of hearing loss and hearing
related disorders (e.g., central auditory processing disorder). A
person who is also extensively trained in the anatomy and physiology
of the audtiory mechanism, counseling for hearing disorders, and diagnostic
testing/fitting of hearing aids as well as assistive listening devices.
Perceptual Processing Disorder or Central Auditory
||Also referred to as an auditory percetpual
problem, central auditory dysfunction or central auditory processing
disorder (CAPD). It can be defined as difficulty in listening to or
comprehending auditory information, especially under less optimal
listening conditions (e.g., background noise). It is a condition wherein
a person does not process speech/language correctly. They may have
difficulties knowing where sound has occurred and indentifying the
source of the sound or in distinguishing one sound from another. Children
and adults with CAPD are diverse and have difficulty using auditory
information to communicate and learn. For more information, please
click on "Understanding" and then "Auditory Perceptual
Processing Disorder" at the top of the screen.
||The auditory system, mechanism, and processes
responsible for the following: sound localization and lateralization,
auditory discrimination, auditory pattern recognition, temporal aspects
of audition, and auditory performance with competing acoustic signals.
||Autism is a complex developmental disability
that appears during the first three years of life. The result of a
neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, autism
and its associated behaviors have been estimated to occur in as many
as 1 in 500 individuals (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1997). Autism is four times more prevalent in boys than girls and
knows no racial, ethnic, or social boundaries. Family income, lifestyle,
and educational levels do not affect the chance of autism's occurrence.
Per the DSM IV, autism includes delays and/or abnormal functioning
(with onset prior to age 3) in at least one of the following areas:
(1) social interaction, (2) language as used in social communication,
or (3) symbolic or imaginative play. The disturbance is not better
accounted for by Rett's Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.
Futher, for a diagnosis, a total of six or more items from A, B and
C (below), and at least two from A and one each from B and C must
be present. See "Autism--Diagnositc Criteria" A, B and C
||A. Qualitative impairments in reciprocal
social interaction: Marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal
behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body posture,
and gestures to regulate social interaction. Failure to develop peer
relatiohships appropriate to developmental level. Lack of spontaneous
seeking to share enjoyment, interest, or achievements with others.
Lack of social or emotional reciprocity.
|| B. Qualitative impairments
in communication: A delay in, or total lack of, the development of
spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through
alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime). Marked
impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with
others despite adequate speech. Sterotyped and repetitive use of language
or idiosyncratic language. Lack of varied spontaneous make-believe
play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level.
|| Restricted, repetitive,
and sterotyped patterns of behavior, interest, or activity, emcompassing
preoccupation with one or more sterotyped and restricted patterns
of interest, abnormal either in intensity or focus. An apparently
compulsive adherence to specific nonfunctional routines or rituals.
Sterotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping
or twisting, complex whole body movements). Persistent preoccupation
with parts of objects.
||May also be referred to as pervasive developmental
disorders. Autistic spectrum disorders include Asperger syndrome,
autism, and pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified.
They are neurological in origin and symptoms appear in the first few
years of life. The disorders share a set of behavioral characteristics,
but each child/adult shows symptoms and characteristics very differently.
Autism is referred to as a spectrum disorder to signify these differences
among those sharing a common diagnosis.
||A behavioral management plan tries to prevent
maladaptive behaviors, teaches socially acceptable behaviors to take
the place of unpleasant behaviors, and creates a crisis intervention
||The Behavioral Therapist seeks to effect
positive and lasting change by working with the client to modify their
maladaptive thoughts and/or behaviors.
Speech and Hearing Association
||The State of California's professional,
scientific, and credentialing association for audiologists, speech-language
pathologists, and speech, language, and hearing scientists.
Fellowship Year (CFY)
||An important transitional phase between
supervised graduate-level practicum and the independent delivery of
services. It is designed to foster the continued growth and integration
of the knowledge, skills, and tasks of clinical practice in speech-language
pathology consistent with ASHA's current scope of practice. The CFY
lasts a continuous 9 months while maintaining full-time employment
(30+ hours a week).
||a. The exchange of thoughts, messages,
or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior. b. Interpersonal
rapport. c. communications (used with a sing. or pl. verb). The art
and technique of using words effectively and with grace in imparting
||a. Existing at or before birth. b. Acquired
at birth or during uterine. Developmental, as a result of either hereditary
or environmental influences.
||"Manipulation of objects for the purpose
of constructing or creating something (Rubin, 1984). Children use
materials to achieve a specific goal in mind that requires transformation
of objects into a new configuration. Usually emerges around two years
of age and predominates from age three on.
||When children plan, assign roles and play
together it is referred to as cooperative play. Cooperative play is
goal-oriented and children play in an organized manner toward a common
end. Emerges around 36 to 48 months of age and continues through the
||A deficiency or impairment in mental or
||To perform below expected norms according
to chronological age or grade level.
||Developmental Disabilities in infants and
toddlers are displayed as significant differences between expected
level of development for age and current level of functioning. Children
with developmental disabilities are those who have a delay in one
or more of the following areas: cognitive development; physical and
motor development, including vision and hearing; communication development;
social or emotional development; or adaptive development.
||Children who do not develop language skills
appropriately or according to language norms are language delayed
||Children who do not develop speech production
skills appropriately or according to normative data are speech delayed
||a. The act or process of identifying or
determining the nature and cause of a disease or injury through evaluation
of patient history, examination, and review of other significant data.
b. The opinion derived from such an evaluation.
||The functional consequence of impairment
||Discrete trial training (DTT) is a method
of behavioral intervention. DTT programs generally involve several
hours of direct one-on-one instruction per day over many months or
years and teach specific skills in an intensive manner. The discrete
trial method has four distinct parts (according to Anderson et al,
1996): (1) the trainer's presentation, (2) the child's response, (3)
the consequence, (4) a short pause between the consequence and the
next instruction (between interval trials). In general, DTT programs
target skills that are broken down into finite, discrete tasks. The
behavioral therapist typically uses repetition, feedback, and positive
reinforcers to help the child master small tasks. Once mastered, basic
skills are used as building blocks to develop more complex abilities.
Behavioral excesses such as tantrumming, aggression, and repetitive
behaviors, may also be addressed. Not all programs using DTT follow
the same program sequences or curriculum.
||An ailment or condition that affects the
function of mind or body:
||Date of Birth
|| Down Syndrome
||A congenital disorder, caused by the presence
of an extra crititical portion of the 21st chromosome in all, or some,
of one's cells. This additional genetic material changes the developmental
course, causing the charateristics associated with the syndrome. Those
affected usually have mild to moderate mental retardation
||Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder that
is due to a paralysis, weakness, altered muscle tone or incoordination
of the speech muscles. Speech is slow, weak, efforful, imprecise or
uncoordinated. Voice and breathing for speech may also be affected.
||A disorder/condition that affects an individual's
ability to swallow.
||Impairment of speech and verbal comprehension;
term often used when associated with stroke or brain injury.
|| Early Intervention
||Early intervention applies to children
prior to school age who are discovered to have or be at risk of developing
a handicapping condition or other special need that may affect their
development. Early intervention consists of the provision of services
for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening
the effects of the condition. Early intervention can be remedial or
preventive in nature--remediating existing developmental problems
or preventing their occurrence.
||Therapy focuses on intervention to improve
the child's ability to learn and function in the school environment.
||A professional who uses educational and
therapeutic approaches in working with clients of all ages with learning
problems and learning disabilities. Educational Therapists perform
professional work which requires applying the concepts, principles,
and practices of education and rehabilitation therapy.
||A disturbance which can be characterized
by: an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships;
inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;
general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or a tendency
to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or
school problems. If frequently affects the ability to learn.
||An assessment of an individual's abilities
(i.e., speech and language, motoric, cognitive, etc.) in order to
determine their strengths and weaknesses, and to see whether or not
deficits are significant for intervention. It is usually the first
thing that takes place to get a child qualified for service. The purpose
is most often eligibility for a service(s).
|| Floor Play
||Therapy where skills such as speech, language
and play are developed through floor-based play involving toys, games,
|| Fragile X
||A genetic condition caused by a spontaneous
partial break in the long arm of the X chromosome. Measurement of
testes in males and a chromosome analysis helps confirm the diagnosis.
There are often very few outward signs of Fragile X syndrome. The
spectrum of the syndrome ranges from normal development to developmental
delay, learning disabilities, mild-severe intellectural disability,
autistic-like behavior and attentional problems. The majority of children
are mildy to moderately affected.
||May also be a term used for "relational
play" (seen between 9-24 months) denoting use of objects in play
for the purposes for which they were intended, e.g., using simple
objects correctly, combining related objects (man in car), and making
objects do what they are made to do.
||The process (therapy) to make suitable
for specific use
||The loss or limitation of opportunities
to take part in the life of the community on an equal level with others.
||Broad term covering individuals with hearing
loss ranging from mild to profound (deaf).
||A corporation financed by insurance premiums
whose members, physicians and professional staff provide curative
and preventive medicine within certain financial, geographic, and
professional limits to enrolled volunteer members and their families.
||Broad term covering individuals with hearing
loss ranging from mild to profound (deaf).
||Characteristics that are typically seen
in individuals with "high functional autism" may include
some of the following: average or above average IQ, superior vocabulary
skills, higher rate of unusual obsessions, motor deficits (clumsiness),
less impaired on "theory of mind" tests, and speech is less
||A syndrome observed in children who have
the following characteristics: an ability to read words, far above
what would be expected at their chronological age, frequently an intense
and early fascination with letters or numbers, significant difficulty
in understanding/processing verbal language, abnormal social skills,
and deficits in social/pragmatic communication abilities. Precocious
reading abilities are developed spontaneously before the age of five;
they are not taught.
|| ICD Code
||A universal billing system that utilizes
a numeric format (codes) that differ as related to specific diagnosis.
ICD stands for International Classification of Diseases.
||An abnormality of structure or function
Education Plan (IEP)
||A written plan for every student receiving
special education services within the public school system. The plan
contains information such as the student's special learning needs
and the specific special education services required by the student.
||A spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders
characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication,
and unusual and repetitive behavior. Typically occurs within the first
three years of life. Some, but not all people with autism, are non-verbal.
Please see Autism in this glossary for more information.
||a. Coverage by a contract binding a party
to indemnify another against specified loss/conditions in return for
premiums paid. b. The sum or rate for which such a contract insures
something. c. The periodic premium paid for this coverage.
||The ratio of tested mental age to chronological
age, usually expressed as a quotient multiplied by 100.
||A disorder with seizures starting in childhood
in which the patient loses skills, such as speech, and develops behavior
characteristic of autism.
||The use by human beings of voice sounds,
and often written symbols representing these sounds, in organized
combinations and patterns in order to express and communicate thoughts
and feelings. Language also includes other forms of communication
as well, e.g., use of symbols, gesture, and sign.
Based Learning Disability
||Disabilities which interfere with age-appropriate
reading, spelling, and/or writing. Please see "Learning Disabilities"
for a broader definition of learning disabiity. A language based learning
disability is specific to language processing and use.
||Also called Receptive Language. A person's
ability to understand and process language at the sound, word, phrase,
sentence, multi-sentence and conversational levels. Involves understanding
of vocabulary, concepts, grammar (morphology and syntax), and higher
level language associated with processing more abstract language (e.g.,
inferences, idioms, verbal problem solving and abstract reasoning).
Also involves the ability to retain linguistic information for the
purpose of understanding and interpretation. Difficulties with receptive
language can interfere with academic or occupational achievement or
with social communication
||Disabilities affecting the manner one takes
in information, retains it, and expresses the knowledge and understanding
they have. Learning disabilities is a general term for a heterogeneous
group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in acquistion
and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical
abilities. They are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due
to central nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the life
span. Problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and
social interaction may exist with learning disabilities but do not
by themselves constitute a learning disability. Though learning disabilities
may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions or with
extrinsic influences, they are not the result of those conditions
or influences (National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities,
1981, revised 1988). See "Learning Disabilities--Continued"
for other frequent characteristics.
|| Learning Disabilities--Continued
||Frequent characteristics of learning disabilities
include, but are not limited to, a marked discrepancy between achievement
and potential with uneven abilities within an individual, average
to above average intellectual functioning, processing deficits (e.g.,
auditory and/or visual perceptual problems), and long/short term auditory
and/or visual memory deficits.
||Therapy focuses on treatment to cure or
alleviate specific underlying medical conditions.
||Impaired intellectual ability that is equivalent
to or less than an IQ of approximately 70 with onset before age 18,
and presenting with concurrent impairments in adaptive functioning.
The condidtion is manifested typically by abnormal development, learning
difficulties, and problems in social adjustment
||A group or team of disciplines that work,
assess, report results, and/or deliver treatment to clients.
School Agency (NPA)
||An approved, but unrelated, agency that
provides a service to meet the needs/demands of a public school system.
||A specific pattern of neuropsychological
assets and deficits that eventuates in the following: a specific pattern
of relative assets and deficits in academic (well-developed single-word
reading and spelling relative to mechanical arithmetic) and social
(e.g., more efficient use of verbal than nonverbal information in
social situations) learning; specific, developmentally dependent patterns
of psychosocial functioning.
||"A grouping of specific abnormalities
affecting both males and females, both sporadic in appearance but
also reflecting a hereditary component (thought to be autosomal dominant).
Symptoms may include webbed neck, sternum abnormalities (pectus excavatum,
occasionally pectus carinatum), sagging eyelids (ptosis), wide-set
eyes (hypertelorism), low-set ears
abnormally shaped ears, undescended testicles, delayed puberty, mental
retardation, short stature, and small penis."
||Provides evaluation and treatment of daily
living skills for individuals with disabilities. Therapy emphasizes
remediation of or compensation for perceptual, sensory, visual-motor,
fine-motor, and self-care deficits.
|| Oral Motor
||Referring to the oral motor structures
for speech, e.g., lips, tongue, teeth, palate, larynx, and so forth.
||Inflammation of the middle ear, occurring
commonly in children as a result of infection and often causing pain
and temporary hearing loss.
||The child plays near or beside another
child using some or all of the same/similar materials as the other
child without trying to modify or influence the other child and being
mainly concerned with toy materials, not with relating to the other
child. Predominates between 24-30 months.
||One who engages in the scientific study
of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and
||When children display similar behaviors
to but do not meet the criteria for autistic disorder, they may receive
a diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified
(PDD/NOS). It is a neurological disorder that affects such areas as
a child's ability to communicate, understand language, play, and relate
Awareness / Processing
||Phonological awareness is a person's explicit
knowledge of the sound segments (phonemes) which comprise words. Phonological
processing skills include the ability to recognize and produce rhyming
words or patterns of alliteration, segmenting or breaking apart words
into syllables/sounds, identify where a specific sound occurs in a
word, and blend sounds into words. Problems in these areas indicate
a weakness in phonological processing/awareness. Other symptoms seen
with a phonological processing deficit are difficulty with rapid-naming
tasks and incorrect repetition of multisyllabic words.
||A disorder characterized by failure to
use speech sounds that are appropriate for the individual's age and
dialect. Symptoms typically include but are not limited to failure
in sound production and use, substitutions of one sound for another,
and omissions of sounds. The pattern of errors may indicate use of
inappropriate phonological processes/rules for the child's age, e.g.,
final consonant deletion, or omission of final consonants in words
||Provides assessment and treatment for disorders
related to physical and musculoskeletal injuries. Therapy emphasizes
remediation of or compensation for mobility, gait, muscle strength,
and postural deficits.
||After the development of speech.
||Before the development of speech.
||A physician who specializes in psychiatry.
||The branch of medicine that deals with
the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders.
||A person trained and educated to perform
psychological research, testing, and therapy. Holds a Master's degree
or ph.D in the field of psychology. Since not an MD, they may not
||The Centers shall function as a leader
and advocate in promoting the continuing entitlement of citizens with
developmental disabilities to all services that enable full community
inclusion. The Association shall also participate in the development
of public legislative policy and serve as a focal point for communication,
education, training and prevention services.
||To restore to good health or useful life,
as through therapy and education.
||The act or process of correcting a fault
||Pretend play which emerges when a child
begins to use familiar objects in appropriate ways to represent their
world (i.e. pushing a toy lawn mower over the grass). Begins to occur
between 12- to 21-months of age.
||Typically, a Resource Specialist provides
support, pertinent information, consultant services, and direct intervention
to individuals, their family, and staff members regarding educational/learning
needs and issues. Frequently found within the public school setting.
||The process of the brain organizing and
interpreting sensory information.
||Sensory integration dysfunction is the
inability to process certain information received through the senses.
||Verbal and/or nonverbal difficulties in
socializing and relating with peers.
||Play involving acting out scripts, scenes,
etc. (i.e., from a favorite cartoon or book or from daily life). Children
take/assume roles using themselves and/or characters (dolls, figures)
as they interact together on common themes. A faciliator may assist
ideas for characters, settings or props and use the children's ideas
for a story. Typically occurs between 3 - 4 years of age. As a child
matures, themes, sequences, plans, problem solving, characters and
so forth become more rich and they begin to organize other children
for role play with independence (around 5 years of age).
||The child plays alone with toys that are
different from those used by the children within speaking distance
and makes no effort to interact with other children. The child plays
alone without concern for the activties of those around him/her. Seen
by 15-18 mos up through 2 yrs.
||Resources, services, classes, etc. for
students with special educational needs. The public school system
is involved with the identification of students with special needs,
ages three on up. They provide assessment and, if appropriate, intervention
services for those who qualify. Specific procedures are involved in
assessment and intervention. If identified with special needs, an
Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) is written for the child to
address learning needs.
||a. The faculty or act of speaking. b. The
faculty or act of expressing or describing thoughts, feelings, or
perceptions by the articulation of words.
||The study of speech and language defects
||A professionals who is educated to assess
speech and language development, treat language and speech disorders,
and help people with swallowing disorders. Requires at least a Master's
Degree, state, and national credentials.
||A group of brain disorders involving loss
of brain functions that occur when the blood supply to any part of
the brain is interrupted.
||Excessive repetition of parts of words,
involutary prolongation of sounds in words, and/or struggle to "get
words out." A certain amount of dysfluent speech may be normal
as a child learns to talk, and determination of stuttering is based
on such information as the type, amount, and severity of the dysfluencies,
the amount of struggle and tension during speech, and the length of
time a child has been dysfluent. Stuttering tends to run in families.
It is seen more in males than females. There is evidence that stuttering
may be associated with some neurological deficits. There can also
be a strong psychological component. Stuttering may persist into adulthood.
Early intervention is important.
||Symbolic, or dramatic, play is when children
begin to substitute one object for another. For example, using a hairbrush
to represent a microphone. The child may pretend to do something (with
or without the object present or with an object representing another
object) or be someone. They may also pretend through other inanimate
objects (e.g., has a doll pretend to feed another doll). Dramatic
play with sequence of pretend acts predominates after 2 years of age.
||Organized play that occurs at a table or
related location. For example a board game, cards, etc.
||A "Theory of Mind" (often abbreviated
as TOM) is a specific cognitive ability to understand others as intentional
agents, that is, to interpret their minds in terms of theoretical
concepts of intentional states such as beliefs and desires. It has
been commonplace in philosophy (see Davidson 1984; Dennett 1987) to
see this ability as intrinsically dependent upon our linguistic abilities.
After all, language provides us a representational medium for meaning
and intentionality : thanks to language we are able to describe other
people’s and our own actions in an intentional way as in : "Ralph
believes that Mary intends him to persuade George that p". According
to this view, the intentionality of natural language, that is, its
suitability for expressing meanings and thoughts, is the key for understanding
the intentionality of our theory of mind.
||One who specializes in the provision of
a particular therapy.
||Treatment of illness, disability, or delay.
||A severe neurological disorder characterized
by multiple facial and other body tics, usually beginning in childhood
or adolescence and often accompanied by grunts and compulsive utterances,
for example, interjections and obscenities. Also called Gilles de
la Tourette syndrome.
||An acute assault/injury on the brain that
can range from mild to severe.
||An organized course of action, involving
goals/objectives and methods for treatment of a patient.
||A person charged with the instruction and
guidance of another. Used to describe one who assists another with
homework and teaches academic subjects to pupils who require individual
instruction. They do not test, remediate or deal with the social-emotional
problems typically associated with learning disability. They may not
have specialized training in the field of learning disabilities.
||Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is also
known as velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) or even velopharyngeal incompetence
(VPI). The most common cause of velopharyngeal insufficiency is a
history of cleft palate or submucous cleft. However, other causes
include a short velum, poor pharyngeal wall movement, cranial base
anomalies, a history of adenoidectomy, surgery for midface advancement,
enlarged tonsils, and irregular adenoids. Neuromotor disorders can
cause poor velopharyngeal movement, resulting in velopharyngeal dysfunction.
Frequently, hypernasality is perceived.
||Motor speech disorder where the speaker
shows reduced efficiency in accomplishing the oral postures necessary
for phoneme production and the sequences of those postures for production
of syllables, words, sentences, and/or conversation. The speaker may
show groping behaviors and struggle to initiate, organize and carrythrough
speech movement. It is a motor planning problem for speech. Generally,
unlike dysarthria, there is nothing wrong with the speech muscles
||Also called Expressive Language. Refers
to a person's ability to express themselves at the word, phrase, sentence,
multi-sentence and conversational levels. Includes ability to use
age appropriate vocabulary, concepts and grammar to communicate needs,
wants, desires, thoughts, and ideas. Verbal expression refers to the
use of oral language for communication. However, expressive language
includes the use of alternative or augmentative communication to include
gestures, sign language, and simple to complex augmentative devices
(for example, picture boards, alphabet boards, computerized systems
with or without voice). Difficulties with expressive language can
interfere with academic or occupational achievement or with social
||In general, there are five categories that
characterize the underlying causes of the majority of voice disorders;
in decreasing order of frequency, these are: 1.Infectious and inflammatory
conditions 2.Vocal misuse and abuse syndromes 3.Benign and malignant
growths 4.Neuromuscular diseases 5.Psychogenic conditions. It is common
for multiple factors to be involved in the development of a voice
disorder. An example is a patient with Reinke's edema, a term used
to describe very swollen vocal cords. These patients almost always
are heavy, long-term smokers, most of whom have gastroesophageal reflux
as well. Another example of a voice issue is a patient with vocal
nodules. This condition is always associated with signs of increased
laryngeal muscle tension. Since voice disorders are often multifactorial,
appropriate diagnosis and treatment in each case depends upon identification
and correction of all of the underlying factors.